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  • 本站编辑:杭州耐而电子有限公司发布日期:2019-08-08 17:32 浏览次数:

线束焊接

Wire harness welding

线束焊接

Wire harness welding

中文名称:线束焊接

Chinese Name: Wire Harness Welding

英文名称:harness welding

English name: harness welding

定义:一组金属线和电缆绑在一起,运载设备之间来往的信号和电源的连接,它们通过加热或加压,或两者并用,也可能用填充材料,使工件达到结合的方法。

Definition: A group of metal wires and cables tied together, signal and power connections between delivery equipment, which are heated or pressurized, or both, or may be filled with materials to achieve a combination of workpieces.

什么是线束

What is a wiring harness?

要了解线束焊接,先要了解什么是线束。所谓线束,就是指电路中连接各电器设备的接线部件,由绝缘护套、接线端子、导线及绝缘包扎材料等组成。线束多用在各种精密电子设备,如汽车电路,电脑主板电路,家用电器电路等。这类电线束最容易发生的故障有3种:

To understand wiring harness welding, we must first understand what is wiring harness. The so-called wiring harness refers to the wiring components connecting various electrical equipment in the circuit, which are composed of insulating sheath, wiring terminals, wires and insulating wrapping materials. Wire harness is mostly used in various precision electronic equipment, such as auto circuit, computer motherboard circuit, household appliances circuit, etc. There are three types of faults most likely to occur in this kind of wiring harness:

1)自然损坏

1) Natural damage

电线束使用超过了使用期,使电线老化,绝缘层破裂,机械强度显著下降,引起电线之间短路、断路、搭铁等,造成电线束烧坏。线束端子氧化、变形,造成接触不良等,会引起电气设备不能正常工作。

Over the service life of the harness, the aging of the wire, the rupture of the insulation layer, the significant decline in mechanical strength, resulting in short circuit between the wires, circuit breakage, iron, etc., resulting in the burnout of the harness. Wire harness terminal oxidation, deion, resulting in poor contact, etc., will cause electrical equipment can not work properly.

2)由于电气设备的故障造成电线束的损坏

2) Damage of wiring harness due to malfunction of electrical equipment

当电气设备发生过载、短路、搭铁等故障,都可能引起电线束损坏。

When electrical equipment overload, short circuit, iron and other faults occur, they may cause damage to the harness.

3)人为故障

3) Man-made malfunction

装配或检修汽车零部件时,金属物体将电线束压伤,使电线束绝缘层破裂;电线束位置不当;电气设备的引线位置接错;蓄电池正负极引线接反;检修电路故障时,乱接、乱剪电线束电线等,都可以引起电气设备的不正常工作,甚至烧坏电线束。

When assembling or repairing auto parts, metal objects will crush the wire harness, causing the insulation layer of the wire harness to break; the wire harness position is inappropriate; the lead position of the electrical equipment is wrong; the lead of the positive and negative electrodes of the accumulator is reversed; when repairing the circuit fault, the disorderly connection and cutting of the wire harness can cause the abnormal work of the electrical equipment, or even burning. Bad wiring harness.

其中前2种故障最让工程技术人员头疼。而焊接工艺的选择是是导致这类故障最直接的原因。

The first two kinds of faults are the most headaches for engineers and technicians. The selection of welding process is the most direct cause of such failure.

传统的线束焊接

Traditional Wire Harness Welding

传统的线束焊接工艺主要有:熔焊,纤焊,压焊。

The traditional wire harness welding technology mainly includes fusion welding, fiber welding and pressure welding.

1)熔焊是在焊接过程中将工件接口加热至熔化状态,不加压力完成焊接的方法。熔焊时,热源将待焊两工件接口处迅速加热熔化,形成熔池。熔池随热源向前移动,冷却后形成连续焊缝而将两工件连接成为一体。由于熔焊后,线束接面以熔接苞状结合形成焊瘤,电阻大,大大降低了线束使用寿命。并且在熔焊过程中,如果大气与高温的熔池直接接触,大气中的氧就会氧化金属和各种合金元素。大气中的氮、水蒸汽等进入熔池,还会在随后冷却过程中在焊缝中形成气孔、夹渣、裂纹等缺陷,恶化焊缝的质量和性能。

1) Fusion welding is a method of heating the workpiece interface to the melting state and completing the welding without pressure during the welding process. When welding, the heat source will rapidly heat and melt at the interface of the two workpieces to be welded to form a molten pool. The molten pool moves forward with the heat source and forms a continuous weld after cooling, which connects the two workpieces into one. After welding, the weld bead is formed by bracket joint of the wire harness, which has high resistance and greatly reduces the service life of the wire harness. In the process of welding, if the atmosphere contacts directly with the high temperature molten pool, the oxygen in the atmosphere will oxidize metals and various alloying elements. Nitrogen and water vapor in the atmosphere enter the molten pool, and defects such as porosity, slag inclusion and cracks will be formed in the weld during subsequent cooling process, which will deteriorate the quality and performance of the weld.

2)钎焊是使用比工件熔点低的金属材料作钎料,将工件和钎料加热到高于钎料熔点、低于工件熔点的温度,利用液态钎料润湿工件,填充接口间隙并与工件实现原子间的相互扩散,从而实现焊接的方法。

2) Brazing is a method of using metal material with lower melting point than workpiece as filler metal, heating workpiece and filler metal to temperature higher than and lower than the melting point of workpiece, wetting workpiece with liquid filler metal, filling interface gap and achieving atom diffusion with workpiece, so as to realize welding.

焊接时形成的连接两个被连接体的接缝称为焊缝。焊缝的两侧在焊接时会受到焊接热作用,而发生组织和性能变化,这一区域被称为热影响区。焊接时因工件材料焊接材料、焊接电流等不同,焊后在焊缝和热影响区可能产生过热、脆化、淬硬或软化现象,也使焊件性能下降,恶化焊接性。这就需要调整焊接条件,焊前对焊件接口处预热、焊时保温和焊后热处理可以改善焊件的焊接质量。

The weld formed during welding to connect two joints is called the weld. The two sides of the weld will be affected by the heat of welding, and the structure and properties of the weld will change. This area is called heat affected zone. Due to the difference of welding material and welding current, the phenomenon of overheating, embrittlement, hardening or softening may occur in the weld and heat affected zone after welding, which also degrades the performance of the welded parts and deteriorates the weldability. It is necessary to adjust the welding conditions. The welding quality can be improved by preheating the joint before welding, heat preservation during welding and heat treatment after welding.

3)压焊是在加压条件下,使两工件在固态下实现原子间结合,又称固态焊接。常用的压焊工艺是电阻对焊,当电流通过两工件的连接端时,该处因电阻很大而温度上升,当加热至塑性状态时,在轴向压力作用下连接成为一体。

3) Pressure welding is to combine two workpieces in solid state under pressure, which is also called solid state welding. Resistance butt welding is commonly used. When the current passes through the connecting end of two workpieces, the temperature rises because of the large resistance. When heated to the plastic state, the connection becomes one under the action of axial pressure.

各种压焊方法的共同特点是在焊接过程中施加压力而不加填充材料。多数压焊方法如扩散焊、高频焊、冷压焊等都没有熔化过程,因而没有象熔焊那样的有益合金元素烧损,和有害元素侵入焊缝的问题,从而简化了焊接过程,也改善了焊接安全卫生条件。同时由于加热温度比熔焊低、加热时间短,因而热影响区小。许多难以用熔化焊焊接的材料,往往可以用压焊焊成与母材同等强度的优质接头。

The common feature of all kinds of pressure welding methods is to exert pressure during welding without filling material. Most pressure welding methods, such as diffusion welding, high frequency welding and cold pressure welding, do not have melting process. Therefore, there is no burning loss of beneficial alloy elements and the problem of harmful elements invading the weld seam, which simplifies the welding process and improves the welding safety and hygiene conditions. At the same time, because the heating temperature is lower than that of fusion welding and the heating time is shorter, the heat affected zone is smaller. Many materials that are difficult to weld by melt welding can be welded by pressure welding to form high quality joints with the same strength as the base metal.

综上所述,压焊必然要取代熔焊、纤焊成为线束焊接的主流工艺。

In summary, pressure welding is bound to replace fusion welding and fiber welding as the mainstream technology of wire harness welding.

线束压焊工艺介绍

Introduction of Wire Bundle Pressure Welding Technology

线束压焊方式有扩散焊、高频焊、冷压焊、超声波焊。

There are diffusion welding, high frequency welding, cold pressure welding and ultrasonic welding.

扩散焊

Diffusion welding

diffusion welding

Diffusion welding

将焊件紧密贴合,在一定温度和压力下保持一段时间,使接触面之间的原子相互扩散形成联接的焊接方法。影响扩散焊过程和接头质量的主要因素是温度压力扩散时间和表面粗糙度。焊接温度越高,原子扩散越快焊接温度一般为材料熔点的0.5~0.8倍。根据材料类型和对接头质量的要求,扩散焊可在真空、保护气体或溶剂下进行,其中以真空扩散焊应用最广。为了加速焊接过程、降低对焊接表面粗糙度的要求或防止接头中出现有害的组织,常在焊接表面间添加特定成分的中间夹层材料,其厚度在0.01毫米左右。扩散焊接压力较小,工件不产生宏观塑性变形,适合焊后不再加工的精密零件。扩散焊可与其他热加工工艺联合形成组合工艺,如热耗-扩散焊、粉末烧结-扩散焊和超塑性成形-扩散焊等。这些组合工艺不但能大大提高生产率,而且能解决单个工艺所不能解决的问题。如超音速飞机上各种钛合金构件就是应用超塑性成形-扩散焊制成的扩散焊的接头性能可与母材相同,特别适合于焊接异种金属材料、石墨和陶瓷等非金属材料、弥散强化的高温合金、金属基复合材料和多孔性烧结材料等。扩散焊已广泛用于反应堆燃料元件、蜂窝结构板、静电加速管、各种叶片、叶轮、冲模、过滤管和电子元件等的制造。

  扩散焊是在一定温度和压力下将种待焊物质的焊接表面相互接触,通过微观塑性变形或通过焊接面产生微量液相而扩大待焊表面的物理接触,使之距离离达(1~ 5)x10-8cm以内(这样原子间的引力起作用,才可能形成金属键),再经较长时间的原子相互间的不断扩散,相互渗透,来实现冶金结合的一种焊接方法。

  显然,对于普通线束的焊接,使用扩散焊成本太高。

  高频焊(high-frequency welding)

  高频焊是以固体电阻热为能源。焊接时利用高频电流在工件内产生的电阻热使工件焊接区表层加热到熔化或接近的塑性状态,随即施加(或不施加)顶锻力而实现金属的结合。因此它是一种固相电阻焊方法。高频焊根据高频电流在工件中产生热的方式可分为接触高频焊和感应高频焊。接触高频焊时,高频电流通过与工件机械接触而传入工件。感应高频焊时,高频电流通过工件外部感应圈的耦合作用而在工件内产生感应电流。高频焊是专业化较强的焊接方法,要根据产品配备专用设备。生产率高,焊接速度可达30m/min。主要用于制造管子时纵缝或螺旋缝的焊接。

  显然,对于细小的线束,高频焊不适用。

  冷压焊

  冷压焊,英文为cold pressure welding

  加压变形时,工件接触面的氧化膜被破坏并被挤出,能净化焊接接头。所加压力一般要高于材料的屈服强度,以产生60~90%的变形量。加压方式可以缓慢挤压、滚压或加冲击力,也可以分几次加压达到所需的变形量。

  冷压焊由于不需加热、不需填料,设备简单;焊接的主要工艺参数已由模具尺寸确定,故易于操作和自动化,焊接质量稳定,生产率高,成本低;不用焊剂,接头不会引起腐蚀;焊接时接头温度不升高,材料结晶状态不变,特别适于异种金属和热焊法无法实现的一些金属材料和产品的焊接。冷压焊已成为电气行业、铝制品业和太空焊接领域中最重要的有限几种焊接方法之一。

  冷压焊机及其模具的工作表面可能会积聚金属碎屑,必须定期清除。如有压缩空气,可用压缩空气把碎屑吹掉。如果要彻底的清除碎屑,可将模具从焊机中取出,把模具的四块模块拆开,用放大镜仔细每块模块,确保所有模块表面的微量碎屑都被清除。拆模时必须小心,尤其小弹簧容易丢失。模具的表面不干净将会导致接线时线容易在模具中打滑,以至于焊接失败。注意维修后的模具工作表面决不允许有任何油脂。

  冷压焊所需设备简单,工艺简便,劳动条件好。但冷压焊所需挤压力较大,在大截面工件的焊接时设备较庞大,搭接焊后工件表面有较深的压坑,因而在一定程度上限制了它的应用范围。

  因此,冷压焊对于线束焊接也不是完美的选择

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